## Solver: simpleReactingParcelFoam Description

simpleReactingParcelFoam is a steady-state solver developed for simulating compressible, turbulent flows with the capability to manage simple reactions between multiphase particle clouds in a continuous fluid phase. This solver is intended to model the basic flow and interactions of parcels within a fluid while considering chemical reactions and transformations. The solver can also handle combustion.

This solver uses the **SIMPLE** algorithm to solve the pressure-velocity coupling of the fluid phase and functions within an Eulerian-Lagrangian framework. The continuous fluid phase is addressed through the Eulerian method, employing the standard Navier-Stokes equations, which include continuity, momentum, species transport, and energy equations. It is compatible with turbulence models such as RANS and LES.

The movement of particles is analyzed within the Lagrangian framework. The trajectory of each particle is determined by integrating Newton’s second law of motion, taking into account gravity, drag, and lift forces. Particles are assumed to be rigid and spherical, with rotational movement being disregarded.

The solver allows for the application of either one-way or two-way coupling between the continuous and particle phases. With one-way coupling, the fluid phase, or the primary phase, influences the particle phase, or the secondary phase, but not vice versa. This approach streamlines calculations and minimizes computational expenses but may compromise accuracy in situations where substantial interaction occurs between phases, making feedback from the secondary phase crucial.

Conversely, in two-way coupling, the secondary phase reciprocally influences the primary phase, ensuring higher accuracy where interactions and feedback between phases play a pivotal role. However, this increased accuracy comes with a higher computational demand.

The solver can be applied to modeling spray combustion systems, fuel injection systems, powder production, and many others.

## Solver: simpleReactingParcelFoam Features

**Steady-State****Compressible****Multiphase - Lagrangian Particles**

- Species Transport
- Lagrangian Particles:
- Multiphase Composition of Particles

- Chemical Reactions
- Evaporation and Boiling
- Combustion Modeling

- Laminar and Turbulent (RANS, LES, DES)
- Multicomponent (mixture)
- Perfect Gas Model
- Pressure-Based Solver
- Rotating Objects:
- Multiple Reference Frames (MRF)

- Passive Scalar
- Porosity Modeling
- Heat Transfer
- Heat Source
- Radiation
- Source Term (explicit/implicit)
- SIMPLE Algorithm
- Solution Limiters:
- Velocity Damping
- Pressure Limit
- Temperature Limit

## Solver: simpleReactingParcelFoam Application

**Energy**

- Spray Combustion (e.g. Spray Combustion)
- Fuel Injection Systems
- Spray Drying
- Particle-Laden Reacting Flows
- Powder Production

## Solver: simpleReactingParcelFoam Species & Reactions Solvers Comparison

Species & Reactions Solvers In this group, we have included compressible (pressure-based) solvers that can be used to simulate: **Species Transport**, **Multicomponent Gas Mixtures**, **Chemical Reactions**, **Combustion**.

**Multicomponent**

- simpleReactingParcelFoam steady-state, multiphase particle clouds
- reactingParcelFoam transient, multiphase particle clouds

**Spray**

- sprayFoam transient, liquid particles only, dedicated to fuel spray combustion
- sprayDyMFoam extension of sprayFoam with DyM

**Coal**

- simpleCoalParcelFoam steady-state, coal particles only
- coalChemistryFoam transient, coal particles only

**Gas***

- reactingFoam fluids with minor density fluctuations (caused by pressure variance), no buoyancy
- rhoReactingFoam fluids with density variations due to reactions, no buoyancy
- rhoReactingBuoyantFoam extension of rhoReactingFoam with buoyancy forces

- * All solvers in this group are transient

- DyM - Dynamic Mesh

## Solver: simpleReactingParcelFoam Results Fields

This solver provides the following results fields:

**Primary Results Fields**- quantities produced by the solver as default outputs**Derivative Results**- quantities that can be computed based on primary results and supplementary models. They are not initially produced by the solver as default outputs.

**Primary Results Fields**

Velocity | \(U\) [\(\frac{m}{s}\)] |

Pressure | \(p\) [\(Pa\)] |

Temperature | \(T\) [\(K\)] |

Species Mass Fraction | \(Y_i\) [\(-\)] |

**Derivative Results**

Density | \(\rho\) [\(\frac{kg}{m^{3}}\)] |

Vorticity | \(\omega\) [\(\frac{1}{s}\)] |

Mach Number | \(Ma\) [\(-\)] |

Peclet Number | \(Pe\) [\(-\)] |

Stream Function | \(\psi\) [\(\frac{m^2}{s}\)] |

Q Criterion | \(Q\) [\(-\)] |

Wall Functions (for RANS/LES turbulence) | \(y^+\) [\(-\)] |

Wall Shear Stress | \(WSS\) [\(Pa\)] |

Wall Heat Flux | \(\phi_q\) [\(W/m^2\)] |

Turbulent Fields (for RANS/LES turbulence) | \(k\) \(\epsilon\) \(\omega\) \(R\) \(L\) \(I\) \(\nu_t\) \(\alpha_t\) |

Volumetric Stream | \(\phi\) [\(\frac{m^{3}}{s}\)] |

Passive Scalar | \(scalar_i\) [\(-\)] |

Forces and Torque acting on the Boundary | \(F\) [\(N\)] \(M\) [\(-\)] |

Force Coefficients | \(C_l\) [\(-\)] \(C_d\) [\(-\)] \(C_m\) [\(-\)] |

Average, Minimum or Maximum in Volume from any Result Field | \(Avg\) \(Min\) \(Max\) |