## Solver: sonicFoam Description

sonicFoam is a pressure-based solver designed for transient simulations of compressible flow. It handles laminar and turbulent, single-phase flows with temperature and density variations (it solves the energy equation).

The solver uses the **PIMPLE** (merged **PISO-SIMPLE**) algorithm for pressure-momentum coupling. This algorithm leverages the strengths of both PISO and SIMPLE methods for pressure-velocity coupling, ensuring robustness in handling transient flows with large time steps. This approach is supplemented by under-relaxation techniques to secure convergence stability. It supports both Multiple Reference Frames (MRF) and porosity modeling and allows easy integration of passive scalar transport equations and source terms.

The dedicated flow regime for this solver is trans-sonic/supersonic flows. It predicts accurately shock waves and heat transfer phenomena. Except for jet engines and propulsion studies, it can be used for explosions and blast wave modeling, choked flows in valves and orifices, heat exchangers, and cooling systems.

## Solver: sonicFoam Features

**Transient****Compressible****Single-Phase**

- High-Speed Aerodynamics
- Transonic Flow
- Supersonic Flows
- Pressure-Based Solver
- Shock Waves Capturing

- Laminar and Turbulent (RANS, LES, DES)
- Equation of State Models
- Rotating Objects:
- Multiple Reference Frames (MRF)

- Passive Scalar
- Porosity Modeling
- Heat Transfer
- Heat Source (energy source therm)
- Source Term (explicit/implicit)
- PIMPLE Algorithm
- Solution Limiters:
- Velocity Damping
- Temperature Limit

## Solver: sonicFoam Application

**Aerospace**

- Jet Engines & Propulsion
- Analysis of Afterburners and Scramjets
- Supersonic Flows:

- Shock Waves and Expansion Waves around Supersonic Aircraft
- Supersonic Nozzles and Diffusers

**Automotive**

- High-speed Vehicles - Race Cars Components

**Explosions and Blast Waves**

- Studying the propagation of shock waves in the air or any other medium due to explosions.

**Heat transfer**

- Heat Exchanger
- Cooling Systems

**HVAC**

- Venturi Systems or Ejectors
- Rapid Depressurization
- Choked Flows in Valves or Orifices

## Solver: sonicFoam Compressible Solvers

Compressible Solvers In this group, we have included single-phase, pressure and density-based solvers that can handle flows with significant variations in density, mostly applicable for and **high-speed aerodynamics** (**Ma > 0.3**)

**Subsonic / Transonic, Steady-State, Ma < 1**

- rhoSimpleFoam steady-state, pressure-based, small density changes
- overRhoSimpleFoam extension of rhoSimpleFoam with Overset

**Subsonic / Transonic, Transient, Ma < 1**

- rhoPimpleFoam transient, pressure-based, small density changes, DyM
- overRhoPimpleDyMFoam extension of rhoPimpleFoam with Overset, DyM

**Transonic / Supersonic, Pressure-Based, Ma > 1**

- sonicFoam transient, pressure-based, shock waves
- sonicDyMFoam extension of sonicFoam with DyM

**Transonic / Supersonic, Density-Based, Ma > 1**

- rhoCentralFoam transient, density-based, shock waves
- rhoCentralDyMFoam extension of rhoCentralFoam with DyM

- Ma - Mach Number
- DyM - Dynamic Mesh
- Overset - also known as Chimera Grid (Method)

## Solver: sonicFoam Results Fields

This solver provides the following results fields:

**Primary Results Fields**- quantities produced by the solver as default outputs**Derivative Results**- quantities that can be computed based on primary results and supplementary models. They are not initially produced by the solver as default outputs.

**Primary Results Fields**

Velocity | \(U\) [\(\frac{m}{s}\)] |

Pressure | \(p\) [\(Pa\)] |

Temperature | \(T\) [\(K\)] |

**Derivative Results**

Density | \(\rho\) [\(\frac{kg}{m^{3}}\)] |

Vorticity | \(\omega\) [\(\frac{1}{s}\)] |

Mach Number | \(Ma\) [\(-\)] |

Courant Number | \(Co\) [\(-\)] |

Peclet Number | \(Pe\) [\(-\)] |

Stream Function | \(\psi\) [\(\frac{m^2}{s}\)] |

Q Criterion | \(Q\) [\(-\)] |

Wall Functions (for RANS/LES turbulence) | \(y^+\) [\(-\)] |

Wall Shear Stress | \(WSS\) [\(Pa\)] |

Wall Heat Flux | \(\phi_q\) [\(W/m^2\)] |

Turbulent Fields (for RANS/LES turbulence) | \(k\) \(\epsilon\) \(\omega\) \(R\) \(L\) \(I\) \(\nu_t\) \(\alpha_t\) |

Volumetric Stream | \(\phi\) [\(\frac{m^{3}}{s}\)] |

Passive Scalar | \(scalar_i\) [\(-\)] |

Forces and Torque acting on the Boundary | \(F\) [\(N\)] \(M\) [\(-\)] |

Force Coefficients | \(C_l\) [\(-\)] \(C_d\) [\(-\)] \(C_m\) [\(-\)] |

Average, Minimum or Maximum in Volume from any Result Field | \(Avg\) \(Min\) \(Max\) |